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Rural Development

Stable And Organic Farming Development:

People have become totally leaned towards the western culture. They try to be intelligent by imitating their culture. Consequently, the old and traditional knowledge and culture of our country got diminished gradually and the western culture and civilization gradually influenced all over the country. This has influenced our agriculture as well. The high rate use of chemical fertilizers, chemical medicines and hybrid variety of seeds in agriculture has resulted in the infertility of soil as well as production level has got down and the productivity of crops has also decreased.

National Environment Awareness Campaign:

People have become totally leaned towards the western culture. They try to be intelligent by imitating their culture. Consequently, the old and traditional knowledge and culture of our country got diminished gradually and the western culture and civilization gradually influenced all over the country. This has influenced our agriculture as well.The high rate use of chemical fertilizers, chemical medicines and hybrid variety of seeds in agriculture has resulted in the infertility of soil as well as production level has got down and the productivity of crops has also decreased.

Vermicompost Pit :

The members of active SHGs were selected from the villages related to Joint Forest Management for vermicompost pit.  Shri Jamnalal Boonkar gave information that earthworm (Alsiya or Aaliya) is a useful farmer friendly pest from decade. The earthworm with its activities inside soil, makes it fertile by regular cultivation naturally. This helps in the increase in passage of air in soil, increases the water holding capacity of soil, increases microorganisms and keeps the fertility strength of the soil. This in turn helps for more production and increase crops and plant growth.

Due to increasing population, demand for food production raised which resulted into more use of chemical fertilizers, technical methods, insecticides and pesticides. This has resulted in the reduc- tion of earthworm's existence inside the soil, but through constant working of scientists it has been possible for the rearing of these earthworm and make use of the manures produced by them in agricultural land to protect it from any more pollution and being ill.

Vermi-culture is a process in which the earth- worm are reared for increasing their population by keeping them under shade within fixed moisture and temperature and feeding them the residues of dung or other crops.

The main objective of vermiculture is ‘vermicomposting.’The excretion of earthworm after eating biowastes is the best quality of manure which is known as vermicompost. Vermicompost is the excretion of the earthworm. Vermicompost has proved to be a complete food for the crops and plant. All the 16 micro nutrients are found in vermicompost which is quite necessary for the plants. Apart from this, important plant growth regulator like giberlin, cytokynin, oxyn are found in vermicompost which have fruitful effects for plant growth. It is quite better than the simple dung manure.

Nutritional ingredients value in vermicompost is in following pattern: "Nitrogen (%) = 2.5-3.00", "Phosphorus (%)  = 1.5-2.00", "Potash (%) = 1.5-2.00"

Nutritional ingredients value in dung manure is in following pattern: "Nitrogen (%) = 0.50", "Phosphorus (%)  = 0.25-0.80", "Potash (%) = 0.5"

The vermicompost also contains calcium, magnesium whose percentage quantity is 3-5 times more than present in dung. It also contains mixture of 200-700 ppm iron ore, manganese, copper, cobalt, molybdenum and borane. Advantage of Vermicompost :

In comparison to the dung, vermicompost has various useful micro organisms and the number of actinomycetes is quite large. These organisms improves the condition of the soil to a great extent. In addition, the crops using vermicompost gains the disease preventing strength. Use of vermicompost increases the water absorbing capacity of soil which prevents erosion & increases water availability to plants.Vermicompost reduces water evaporation which results in less irrigation of crops. With the help of vermicompost, plants get all the 16 micro nutrients in a balanced level.

The Process of formation of Vermicompost told by Shri Vaastava Sa. :

The residue of dung or crops by which vermicompost is prepared should be cleaned so that the glass pieces, stones, metal particles should be separated. First of all, a temporary bed constituting crop residues should be prepared in the land surface which should be of 3 feet width and required length. To fix sufficient and required shade and temperature,a temporary or permanent model for covering the bed should be prepared at a height of 6-7 feet from the bed. This covering model for shade should be prepared with the help of grass shrubs, bamboos, etc.

The crop and dung residues with which vermicompost is to be prepared should be spread over the surface of bed at a distance of one hand from it in a 'doli-shaped' form.  After this, the mixture should be provided with water sprinkles for 5-6 days continuously and mixed properly with hand or some implement (fawda) at 2 days intervals. With this the warmth of the residues comes out and the mixture becomes cold and the earthworms are not harmed.

After 5-6 days, observations should be made whether the mixture has become cold or not. If the mixture has no more warmth, then it is suitable for keep- ing the earthworms in the mixture prepared. The prepared 'doli' should be given perfect shape and the mixture should be filled in with earthworm cocoons and wormlets. The structure of 10 feet long bed is sufficient for 3 kilos of earthworm culture. After this, the bed should be covered with banana leaf or other crop residues to create darkness over the bed. In darkness, the earthworms works more actively.

In order to retain 30-35% moisture,the bed should be provided water shower once in winter and twice day in summer.  The mixture should be mixed slightly with help of palm once in a week so that bed should not become stiff,sufficient movement of air should be available & earthworm will become more active.

After a span of 40-45 day, the residues of bed will be converted into vermicompost and the bed will contain only black tea leaf like substances. The earth- worm will remain in the base level of the bed.

In this condition, showering should be stopped immediately. As soon as, a vermicompost surface of 2-3 inch width forms over the bed surface, it should be removed. The removed vermicompost may contain cocoon and wormlets. In order to separate them, dung should be kept around the vermicompost. All the earthworms should immediately come into the dung. The vermicompost should then be filtered and kept in sacs.

On removing the vermicompost, the lowest surface of the bed will contain cocoons and earthworms. Again, using the same procedure as discussed above, a bed and 'doli' with residual mixture should be prepared. In this way, a new vermicompost bed will be prepared.

Precautions :

1. The Vermicompost bed should be protected from sunlight. Direct sunlight and warmth will kill the earthworms.

2. On the removal of prepared vermicompost, the cocoons and worms should be protected and separated properly so that their population do not decrease.

3. During the formation of vermicompost, the mixture of bed should not be mixed continuously at regular intervals.This destroys the earthworms & affects their workings.

4. The worms should be protected from its enemies like rats, chameleons, lizards, hens, etc. For the production of vermicompost, the prepared composed should be removed, again raw wastes and dung should be provided in the bed within fixed intervals.

Use of Vermicompost :

  • 5 tonnes per hectare vermicompost should be used for the seasonal crops.
  • 7.5 tonnes per hectare vermicompost should be used for the vegetables.
  • For fruit bearing trees, 5 kilo vermicompost per tree should be used.

The vermicompost also contains cocoons and wormlet.If the soil contains proper level of moisture, then their growth is possible in farming land also.Before the start of next cultivation, the land should be provided with biowastes and dung to retain sufficient moisture level in it. With this,the worms present over there should digest these and prepare better manure for production of crops.

World Food Program – Samarjhap (Morila)

WFP works in partnership with governments, other United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and communities to secure the nutrition and food security of those who lack adequate food.

Deepening of Wells :

Adarsh Shiksha Samiti, Salumber gave information on World Food Program during the meetings of Forest Protection and Management Committee and self help groups in Samarjhap (Morila) Village of Salumber. In the meeting, the wells of Khuma S/o lakma Meena and Gamana S/o Dela Meena were selected and deepening of wells was started. Both these wells were deepened iron angle and roller was constructed over the wells to make drawing of water from wells with the help of rope and bucket easy for the people.

Diagnosis Camp:

The organization made planing of launching diagnosis camp during the meeting of Forest Protection and Management Committee and self help group. On 27 March 2007, the place for launching camp was decided in Samarjhap (Morila). Posters for spread of this information were printed and different near by villages were informed through this. In the diagnosis camp, incharge of Sub Health Center and Health center Dr. Chaubisa, Deputy Forest Conservator, L.H.B. Regional Forest Officer, Director and officer of World Food Program provided their support and services. In this camp, about 127 women, men and children were diagnosed and treated. All the members of the organization provided their full support in this work.

Vermicompost Pit:

For vermicompost pit, members of the Self Help Groups working in villages connected with Joint Forest Management were selected. During the training, Resource Person Jamnalal Bunkar gave information about the working and benefit of vermicompost. The process of preparing vermicompost was told by Mr. Shrivastav. Wide description regarding use of vermicompost and precautions taken during its formation was provided to the people and participants. 8 members along with Kanju S/o Kanaram filan, Nathibai S/o Babra Meena, Khanki S/o Khatia Meena, Dhulki/Rama Meena, Rupli/Wala Meena, Bhatudi/Govna Meena and Punmi/Rama Meena were benefited from vermicompost.

 

 

Soil and Water Conservation programme:

The Adarsh Shiksha Samiti was established in 14 Aug 1989 with the objective of spreading education in the scheduled caste & tribal areas & establishing an Adarsh Society.

The Samiti is working from last 17 years in the field of education, literacy, legal awareness, health, environment, Panchayatiraj and rural development. The working area of the organization is spread over Salumber of Udaipur district, Aaspur of Dungarpur district and Gadhi Tehsil of Banswada district.

The organization conducted meetings for solving the problems existing in the Samarjhap village of Morila Gram Panchayat under Salumber Tehsil. The problems were due to migration of people inspite of availability of sufficient farming land. On conducting survey, it was found that the reasons responsible for less production of agriculture were sloping farming land, irregular rainfall which ends the moisture inside soil and the crops get dried.

Therefore, keeping in view all these conditions, decision was taken regarding Drought Mitigation Program report preparation & after discussions the report was completed and sent to CAPART for its sanction. After its sanction, immediate steps were taken for working of the project and responsibilities were decided.

First of all, farmers training (1st stage) were conducted in which knowledge regarding organized project working, proper use of water, proper use of manure, seeds and medicines and selling of the farmer’s production through the medium of groups were provided. Along with this, for the supervision and proper working of these activities, Rural Development Committee was formed and work ons for 7 members was prepared. The working of the project was then started and its description is given below :

(a) Soil and Water Conservation:

18 hectares land was selected and development of farming land with less slope of 688.467 cubic meter was fixed. The process of ‘Medbandi’ was done according to the length and slope of the farming land. It was started on 1 June 2006 and end on 31 December 2006. In collective manner the programme was completed in 1234 working days.

(b) Development of Sloped Cultivating land :

To stop soil erosion during rainy season, 47 check dams were constructed for 714.870 cubic meter in 17 hectares land. It was started on 1 April 2006 and end on 30 November 2006. In collective manner the programme was completed in 1877 working days.

(c ) Fodder Land Development :

75 earthen bunds were constructed to retain water in the fields so that fodder could be grown & animal husbandry & dairy production could be encouraged. For this 436.999 cubic meter total of 8 hectares land was selected and worked on. It was started on 1 July 2006 and ended on 15 March 2007. In collective manner the programme was completed in 1877 working days.

(d) Construction of Water leakage region :

 

Gully Plugs :

80 gully plugs were constructed to stop soil erosion during rainy season and 381.33 cubic meter land was worked upon. It was started on 14 March 2006 and ended on 3 March 2007. In collective manner the programme was completed in 780 working days.

(f) Cost-effective Water Conservation (Talai Construction) :

Last year due to early rainfall it was not started, and so, in February 2007 it was again started and completed. On total 113.40 cubic meter land area talai was constructed. It was started on 1 February 2006 and ended on 28 February 2007. In collective manner the programme was completed in 1877 working days.

(g) Well Construction and Improvement :

To increase the water level in wells, they were dug out more deeper for which blasts were done inside and residue were taken out and the base surface was cemented. Few of process example are given below:

1. Shri Uda Meena well improvement process started on 14 March 2016. It takes 68 working days and process completed on 30 March 2006. 

2. Shri Dola Meena well improvement & constrution process started on 1 April 2016. It takes 81 working days and process completed on 21 June 2006. 

3. Shri Kalu Meena well improvement & constrution process started on 16 April 2016. It takes 74 working days and process completed on 14 June 2006. 

4. Shri Kana Meena well improvement & constrution process started on 1 June 2016. It takes 103 working days and process completed on 14 September 2006.

Agricultural Training (1st) :

We conducted a Agricultural Training section on 13/3/2006 for one day. In which total number of 106 participants (Female - 36 & Male - 70) take a part in training section. All participants resource by Shri Pankaj Shrimali & Shri Kesar Singh Chundawat.

We're thankful to Chief Guest - Shri Amrit Lal Meena, Ward Panch and Chairman - Shri Kishan Lal Sen and others - Shri Hemendra Patel & Shri Mohanlal Sharma.       

Subject Matters :

1. Selection of place for gully plug construction.

2. Increase agricultural production.

3. Development of fodder land.

4. To change slope land into cultivable land.

5. Procedure of preparing vermicompost and rodhi manure.

6. To provide knowledge of loose stone structure and check dam construction.

7. To provide knowledge regarding importance of water and soil retaining importance.

8. To provide knowledge about making the land plane and fertile.

 

Agricultural Training (2nd) :

Again we conducted a Agricultural Training section on 16/6/2006 for one day in Samarjhap. In which total number of 58 participants (Female - 22 & Male - 36) take a part in training section. All participants resource by Shri Pankaj Shrimali & Shri Kesar Singh Chundawat.

Subject Matter :

1. To understand the problems regarding DMP.
2. Provide knowledge about Talai Construction.
3. Tree plantation program.
4. To build strength and capacity of farmers in farming and cultivation.

People’s Participation in Project Implementation :

The village people organized meetings for the participation of beneficiaries before formation of proposal and prepared a visual mapping of their village.The facilities available in the villages were provided in the maps.The problems were worked out and prime necessity of their solutions were showed& according to these the project proposal was prepared. After the sanction of the proposal, meeting was organized for preparing budget and discussions about the working areas.

A rural development committee was formed to supervise and look after the workings in the village and important and chief people of the villages were included in this committee. Three SHGs were formed after discussion and with the decision of the Rural Development Committee the work was started from 14 March, 2006. With the help of Rural Development Committee, the working is going on smoothly and becoming successful.

With people’s participation, the working of the project has been of the village people for which they are working with a feeling of cooperation.Members of the Rural Development Committee are working in village.

CONCLUSION :

In our country, more then 70% of the total population resides in the villages till now and their main source of employment is agriculture and animal rearing. Agriculture is the major source of livelihood in the rural areas and animal rearing is an important part of these people. Indian agriculture is mainly based and dependent upon monsoon.

Therefore rural people call commonly agriculture as ‘gambling of monsoon’ also. Unfavorable monsoon conditions and scarcity of rainfall creates adverse effects on agricultural which in turn effect the agricultural production adversely and makes drought common phenomena. Due to this, small farmers, landless people and other rural families faces scarcity of food throughout the whole year.

In this way, occurrence of drought at regular intervals and continuous increase in population has resulted in the decrease of farming land area.

The organization has been working consistently to bring improvement in the existing living conditions of the rural people. Various BPL self help groups have been formed to bring saving habit among these people so that they could utilize their own savings during emergency and do not take help from the money lenders (sahukars).

These people are provided training regarding small and domestic production with the help of their own savings and cooperation of government. Along with, people were provided training regarding production of vermicompost manure so that the land could be saved from harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and the land would become more fertile and productive by using vermicompost manures.

The law and order of the villages resides in the hands of Panchayats. With the passage of time, the Acts were amended and more rights were provided for its strengthening. Women were provided one-third reservation on posts and the weaker section were also provided reservation, so that the law and order of the village should work systematically without any type of discrimination. The organization organized trainings, meetings and tours specially for women empowerment among the representatives. It launched a campaign 'Chalo Abhiyan' to ensure more people’s participation in the rural and ward Assembly. It also conducted various awareness programs to spread knowledge regarding various governmental plans among needy people.

Apart from this, cases of maternal and infant mortality during child birth are common in rural areas due to lack of knowledge among rural women & proper treatment. Therefore, the organization in order to bring improvement in these conditions, selected animators from villages. These animators were provided training, exposure trips and knowledge regarding governmental facilities and regular meetings were conducted for their capacity building. The organization also conducted various health facilities and their utilization among people.

Consequently, many people got benefited and were relieved and saved from unusual expenditure.Adarsh Shiksha Samiti was successful in its effort for fulfilling the necessities of people in this year and also got people’s participation, cooperation and regards at large. We remain successful in climbing one more ladder of success through providing service to the people. We hope for further cooperation and more participation of people along with their regards for bringing development in this work of social welfare.

Impact:

The successful goat rearing depends on the selection of proper site, provided with a dry comfortable, safe and inclement weather. The beneficiary women have been individually constructed thatched sheds in their living premises with locally available material we have monitored that all sheds have good ventilation for air and light.

So that the goats can grow up in good condition of health & hygiene.The introduction & domestication of improved Sirohi breed of goat in this area as one of the key inputs to improving the livelihood of beneficiaries the goats were expected to provide benefits that would include milk cash from meat & milk sale etc. To actualize this we have provided one goat to each member of GRG in addition each group was provide with a buck for breeding purpose as well as to improve the existing local goat breed in support of dairy goat farming the project also trained the beneficiaries on practical project oriented goat husbandry. Training was also conducted on the benefits to be derived from the goats and management skill Sirohi to optimize the benefits. It is evident that the distributed goats have performing extremely well the following are clear indicator of the goat’s performance as:

  • High percentage of survival ship & low to mortality rate (13%).
  • 21 % have kidded first time.
  • 45% goats have been pregnant.
  • All kidded goats are producing an average of half lit milk per day.

Milk yields are in general below the potential of Sirohi breed goats although it can be improved through better feeding according to pedigree & productivity analysis of this breed show that goats potential for milk production is on average 1 to 1.5 Lit a day under good management. Almost are produced milk is using for various purposed at home especially in tea making drinking for children,guest entertaining, curd making etc.It ensure that the little milk is shared by all member of beneficiaries family .The children those who are sick are given a milk to drink for nourishment Despite the valiant efforts of GRGs quite a few goats have died over the year although the death rates have generally down gradually.

Overall Assessment:

The project has given mostly positive impacts. Although the total productivity in terms of improved breed of goats , improved verities of crops , local water resources have increased at average scale but it indicate that it will generate employment opportunities of rural poor and will enhance their livelihood security gradually. It is true that the quantifiable & significant results are still remaining because the project area is closed to poverty, illiteracy, lack of positive atmosphere for crop & livestock productivity etc but some short term outcomes can be measured such as same farmer have now begun to upgrade their local goats through breading with pure Sirohi buck and many households are now taking into the concept of use the high yield verities of crops for productivity enhancement and some other women are also attracting on the pedigree , adaptability & profitability of distributed goats etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capacity Building Program Of The Volunteers:

Meetings were conducted on 31st of every month for the capacity building of the volunteers so that they could work more efficiently in their working areas. During the meetings, work report of the last 30 days were provided and plans for next working were prepared and their respective responsibilities were decided. The workings were supervised timely and the officials made aware of their working processes. In addition, for encouragement, knowledge and capacity building of the officials, they were sent to various other programs, meetings and trainings organized by other organizations. Their description has been provided in the given list.

Plantation of Fodder Tree:

During first year we have raised a nursery of 4000 fodder plants to envisage major drive to encourage optimum use of farm bunds & waste land under agro forestry pattern in rainy season. In the future it will ensure sustainable supply of green fodder particularly in summer season. Survival of planted tree will be enhanced by introducing survival based maintenance incentives for all planted trees in second year.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In village like "Dangocha" by the involvement of 8 SHG about 1800 plants was distributed in which number of survival plants was 350.

In village like "Kachariya" by the involvement of 6 SHG about 1700 plants was distributed in which number of survival plants was 900.

In village like "Sajnot" by the involvement of 6 SHG about 800 plants was distributed in which number of survival plants was 350.

In village like "Manpur-B" by the involvement of 4 SHG about 756 plants was distributed in which number of survival plants was 550.

Water Resource Development:

Through repairing & deepening of existing wells an approx 20 poor families are getting benefits because the water availability have increased just double to previous level & now the increased amount of water is using conjunctively for animal husbandry, field irrigation & domestic purpose by project beneficiaries in their concern villages:

1.In location of "Dangocha" total number of two wells were repaired and deepening by which in total 9 families and their 81 livestock were benefited & about 17 acre land was irrigated.

2.In location of "Kachariya" one well was repaired and deepening by which in total 11 families and their 97 livestock were benefited and about 14 acre land was irrigated.     

Field Trial Demonstration And Seed Bank Establishment:

In the project villages the small and marginal farmers are often at disadvantageous position in absorbing the agriculture technology related to the genetic enhancement of potential agricultural crops. Hence the concept of productivity enhancement through use the high yield verities seed & establishment of seed bank has been initiated with the participation of beneficiaries. We have distributed improved hybrid seeds during Kharif & Rabi season among interested & needy farms for demonstration.

The farmers have taken the responsibility of seed production its storage, procurement & redistribution of procured seeds among others and we have also provided a good deal of information and motivate the community enough to carry out the improved farming practices and established a seed bank through back collection of produced seeds followed by procurement process.

1.  In village Dangocha rabi crop demonstration done with 37 farmers and in result of that their crop productivity enhanced up to 46% . And in kharif crop demonstration which was done with 10 farmers because of that crop productivity enhanced up to 22%.

2.  In village Kachariya rabi crop demonstration done with 38 farmers and in result of that their crop productivity enhanced up to 48% . And in kharif crop demonstration which was done with 33 farmers because of that crop productivity enhanced up to 18%.

3.  In village Sajanot rabi crop demonstration done with 12 farmers and in result of that their crop productivity enhanced up to 43% . And in kharif crop demonstration which was done with 0 farmers because of that crop productivity enhanced up to 26%.

4.  In village Manpur rabi crop demonstration done with 36 farmers and in result of that their crop productivity enhanced up to 44% . And in kharif crop demonstration which was done with 26 farmers because of that crop productivity enhanced up to 24%.

5.  In village Budel rabi crop demonstration done with 2 farmers and in result of that their crop productivity enhanced up to 48% . And in kharif crop demonstration which was done with 0 farmers because of crop productivity enhanced up to 21%.

Community performance evaluation:

The successful goat rearing depends on the selection of proper site, provided with a dry comfortable, safe and inclement weather. The beneficiary women have been individually constructed thatched sheds in their living premises with locally available material. We have monitored that all sheds have good ventilation for air and light so that the goats can grow up in good condition of health & hygiene. The introduction & domestication of improved Sirohi breed of goat in this area as one of the key inputs to improving the livelihood of beneficiaries the goats were expected to provide benefits that would include milk cash from meat & milk sale etc.

To actualize this we have provided one goat to each member of GRG in addition each group was provide with a buck for breeding purpose as well as to improve the existing local goat breeds in support of dairy goat farming the project also trained the beneficiaries on practical and project oriented goat husbandry.Training was also conducted on the benefits to be derived from the goats and management skill Sirohi to optimize the benefits. It is evident that the distributed goats have performing extremely well the following are clear indicator of the goat’s performance as:

  • High percentage of survival ship & low to mortality rate (13%).
  • 21 % have kidded first time.
  • 45% goats have been pregnant.
  • All kidded goats are producing an average of half lit milk per day.

Milk yield are in general below the potential of Sirohi breed goats although it can be improved through better feeding according to pedigree and the productivity analysis of this breed show that goats potential for milk production is on average 1-1.5 Lit a day under good management.

Almost are produced milk is using for various purposed at home especially in tea making drinking for children,guest entertaining,curd making etc. It en- sures that the little milk is shared. by all member of beneficiaries family .The children those who are sick are given a milk to drink for nourishment Despite theValiant efforts of GRGs quite a few goats have died over the year although the death rates have generally down gradually.